By Robert Cohen Executive Director Text Only


Can you locate your state on the list (at the end of this

The United States Department of Health and Human Services,
along with the Public Health Service and Food and Drug
Administration, has established a 280 page set of protocols
that is collectively referred to as:

The Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (P.M.O.)

The foreword of this all-inclusive set of rules and
regulations governing every quart of milk sold in Ameirca

"Occasional milkborne outbreaks still occur, emphasizing the
need for continued vigilance at every stage of production,
processing, pasteurization and distribution of milk and milk

It is a breath of fresh air to read an occasional
governmental truism regarding milk:

"Milk has the potential to serve as a vehicle of disease and
has, in the past, been associated with disease outbreaks of
major proportions."

This document is more than a guideline for milk producers.
It's the law. In the preface, the purpose of the P.M.O. is

"The Grade 'A' Pasteurized Milk Ordinance is incorporated by
reference in Federal specifications for procurement of milk
and milk products; is used as the sanitary regulation for
milk and milk products served on interstate carriers; and is
recognized by the public health agencies, the milk industry,
and many others as a national standard for milk sanitation."

Many dairy producers have challenged the laws contained
within the all-powerful P.M.O. Courts have clearly
maintained the integrity of these sets of laws when asked to
do so. On page vi of the preface, the P.M.O. states:

"The Ordinance has been widely adopted for many years and
has been upheld by court actions. One of the most
comprehensive decisions upholding the various provisions of
the Ordinance was that of the District Court, Reno County,
Kansas, in the case of Billings et al v. City of Hutchinson
et al., decided May 1, 1934. In this action, the plaintiffs
unsuccessfully sought to enjoin the enforcement of the
Hutchinson ordinance on the grounds that it was

The courts have repeatedly upheld the sanctity of this set
of laws.

The dairy industry continues to ignore the spirit of the
laws so enacted.

To date, no individual or group has challenged national
enforcement of these statutes. There is a first time for all

The table of contents (page vii of the preface) lists the
standards for Grade A milk, and defines "Abnormal Milk" on
page 20.

The standards for Grade "A" raw milk for pasteurization
define abnormal milk this way:

"Lactating animals which show evidence of the secretion of
abnormal milk in one or more quarters (the udder is divided
into four quarters), based upon bacteriological, chemical,
or physical examination, shall be milked last or with
separate equipment and the milk shall be discarded."

The above is further explained ("Public Health Reason"):

"The health of lactating animals is a very important
consideration because a number of diseases of lactating
animals, including salmonellosis, staphloccal infection and
streptococcal infection, may be transmitted to man through
the medium of milk. The organisms of most of these diseases
may get into the milk either directly from the udder or
indirectly through infected body discharges which may drop,
splash, or be blown into the milk."

What is "abnormal milk?"

The current issue of Hoard's Dairyman, the dairy farmer's
magazine, addresses that question. Veterinarian Dave Linn
testifies on page 341 of the April 25, 2002 issue:

"According to the PMO, all milk from cows producing
'abnormal' milk should be dumped."

Linn compares "wholesome" milk to "abnormal" milk, and
reveals insider industry standards shared by the National
Mastitis Council, United States Department of Agriculture,
and Food and Drug Administration. If cows are infected, milk
is abnormal. This is a dirty secret that government agencies
conspire to keep from the dairy-eating public. Dr. Linn

"Research has shown that, with a herd cell count of 200,000,
there may be as many as 15 percent of the cows infected. In
herds with a 300,000 count, this figure may be as high as

("Cell count" refers to the number of somatic cells, dead
white blood cells per milliter of milk).

So, if 25% of the cows in your state are sick and producing
abnormal milk which should be dumped, and that milk is not
dumped, something is seriously wrong with the system. It is
clear that some states in violation of these rigorous milk

Is your state in violation?

If the cell count is over 200,000 in your state, please send
a formal complaint to your Department of Agriculture. Start
with a phone call. The number should be in your telephone

How do you learn the average cell count of milk sold in your
state? That's easy. The April 25, 2002 issue of Hoard's
Dairyman lists every state in America on page 342.

ADVICE: If the count is over 200,000 in your state, the milk
is unfit to drink. File a complaint today.

Average Cell Count Per State (48 continental) in 2001:

AL - 444,000 (pus cells)
AZ - 360,000
AR - 486,000
CA - 298,000
CO - 312,000
CT - 310,000
DE - 386,000
FL - 548,000
GA - 407,000
ID - 320,000
IL - 322,000
IN - 343,000
IA - 333,000
KS - 476,000
KY - 413,000
LA - 479,000
ME - 290,000
MD - 351,000
MA - 308,000
MI - 287,000
MN - 420,000
MS - 442,000
MO - 437,000
MT - 248,000
NE - 443,000
NV - 330,000
NH - 299,000
NJ - 339,000
NM - 311,000
NY - 280,000
NC - 364,000
ND - 344,000
OH - 327,000
OK - 483,000
OR - 286,000
PA - 317,000
RI - 206,000
SC - 404,000
SD - 459,000
TN - 413,000
UT - 284,000
VT - 302,000
VA - 333,000
WA - 275,000
WV - 422,000
WI - 297,000
WY - 341,000

Mastitus (and pus that results from it) is NOT a new
problem. Hoards Dairyman from 1959 speaks to those same
dairy-insider problems.

Robert Cohen author of:   MILK A-Z
Executive Director (
Dairy Education Board

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